Wash (W N) Jackson

"Hotel Jackson"
Alexandria, Virginia Gazette, 20 February 1939

Washington (Wash or W) N Jackson was remembered as “Hotel Jackson.”  He was one of the first large black hotel owners in Alexandria, Virginia, and it was located on King and Peyton Streets. 

It was noted in a 1927 article that “for more than 30-years occupied as a hotel for colored.”  W N Jackson ran his establishment as a hotel and a civic meeting place for the African American community.  The 40th celebration of Lincoln’s emancipation proclamation celebration was held at “Hotel Jackson”.  Also in 1905, the local branch of the National Negro Men’s Business League used Hotel Jackson as their venue.

Not only was W N a hotel owner, but he also owned a Grocery Store at 200 N Payne Street.  He acquired large real estate holdings and was associated with three churches in his lifetime.  The first Church he belonged to in the 1870s was Shiloh Baptist Church, and he was one of the trustees.  Because of a strained relationship with the Church members, Wash left Shiloh Baptist Church.  With two of his associates, Moses Stevens and John A. Wilson, Wash founded and became a trustee of Mt. Jezreel Baptist Church in 1890.  By 1915, Wash and several other trustees were having problems.  He left Mt. Jezreel and became a member and trustee of Third Baptist Church, and remained at that church until his death in 1939.

Washington Jackson was born in Loudoun County, Virginia in 1856.  He was on the 1870 census in Alexandria, Virginia.  Wash married Elizabeth Lucas in 1885, and after her death in 1933, he married Mildred. 

He married twice, became a Merchant, Grocer, hotel owner, real estate owner, trustees of three churches, civic organizer, member of the National Association of Colored People (NAACP), member of the National Building Association of Baltimore City, MD and a private financial lender to African Americans.   He also owned stock in several associations.

When Shiloh Baptist Church hosted the colored Republicans congressional district of Virginia conference, W N Jackson presided over the conference and William A. Carter was the secretary.  Wash announced his organization’s endorsement of Colonel Theodore Roosevelt for President.

W N Jackson died on February 19, 1939 at his residence at 429 North West Street in Alexandria, Virginia.  In his last will and testament, he made his last generous gift.  Outside of Wash’s relatives, he gave his shares of stock that he owned in the Colored Fair Association of Fairfax, Virginia to the trustees of Third Baptist Church of Alexandria.  He was also very generous to the Taylor family.  He gave Catherine Taylor, Charles Taylor, Finley Taylor, Ellen Taylor and others $25 each in 1939. 

The descendants of the Taylor family still leave in Alexandria, Virginia.  They are the children of Mrs. Dorothy Napper Taylor.  This family is also the descendants of people who were buried at a Civil War Cemetery called the “Alexandria Freedmen Cemetery” on Washington and Church Streets.

For all his achievements, Wash was remembered in Alexandria, Virginia as “Hotel Jackson.”

1900 Entrepreneurs

There were many African Americans businesses in Alexandria, Virginia.  African Americans were in occupations as barbers, blacksmiths and Wheelwrights, a Boarding House, Boot and Shoemakers Repairs, Coal and Wood, Confectioners, Dressmakers, Eating Houses, Grocers, Gun and Locksmith, a Junk Dealer, a Livery Stable and a Physician. 

Some African American businesses never made it to the Business section of the City Directory for whatever reason.  Listed are the people and their occupations and locations for the year 1900 that were in the Alexandria City Directory.

Barbers

William Diggs – 312 N Fairfax Street

Dulany & Son – 504 King Street

Ernest G. Grady – 207 King Street

Albert Green – 419 Oronok(c)o Street

Hammond & Jones – 619 King Street

Benjamin F. Lucas – 206 N Fayette Street

Ross & Thompson – 1025 King Street

Larkin Smith – 104 S Royal Street

Herbert P Tancil – 305 King Street

Julia F Triplett – 116 N Royal Street

John Triplett – 211 S Fayette Street

Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights

William Davis – 100 Strand Street

Jackson Garrett – 319 N Royal Street

Oliver Norris – Franklin corn S Patrick Street

Boarding House

Champ Carter – 111 S Union Street

Boot and Shoe Makers and Repairers

Beverly Butler – 318 N Pitt Street

Edmond Fry – 420 S Royal Street

Charles Gray – 521 S Columbus Street

Weston Green – 417 N St. Asaph Street

Charles Jackson – 220 N Fayette Street

Gustavus A Lumpkins – 810 Queen Street

George W Martin, 634 S St. Asaph Street

Gilson Spence – 1210 Cameron Street

John H Webb – 227 Commerce Street

Strother Webb – 428 N Patrick Street

Coal and Wood

Harry B Boteler – 716 N Henry Street

Ernest J Frazier – 622 S Washington Street

Sidney D Lane – 417 N Henry Street

Charles Medley – 235 Commerce Street

Confectioners

Edward W Dudley – 934 N Columbus Street

Henry E Green – 212 N Payne Street

Charles Keys – 204 N Fayette Street

William H Rich – 135 Peyton Street

Dressmakers

Agnes C Proctor – 408 N Patrick Street

Sarah Taylor – 822 N Columbus Street

Eating Houses

Frank B Baltimore – 204 N Fayette Street

Richard Morgan – 601 S Columbus Street

Anna Shackelford – front of Oronok(c)o Street

Charles Williams – 112 King Street

John A Wilson – 223 Commerce Street

Grocers

William Burr – 429 First Street

William S Dogan – 601 S Asaph Street

Edmund Hill – 1012 Wythe Street

W N Jackson – 200 N Payne Street

William R Lee – 903 Princess Street

William H Whiting – 517 Gibbon Street

Gun and Locksmith

John Jones – 528 N Columbus Street

Junk Dealer

Thomas E Arrington – 528 Gibbon Street

Livery Stable

Moses Stevens – 1325 Cameron Street

Physician

Albert Johnson – 814 Duke Street

Hallowell School – 1893 Teachers’ Census

Hallowell Public Black School for Girls

George L. Seaton built another School in the City of Alexandria for black girls.  The Freedmen Bureau funded the Hallowell School in 1867.   The basic design of the school was similar to the Snowden School.  The school was located on North Alfred Street, between Princess and Oronoco Streets. 

Prior to Sarah A. Gray becoming the principal of Hallowell School, Mrs. Matilda A. Madden was the principal and her assistant teachers were Mrs. Jane A. Crouch and Miss Harriett Douglas.

Hallowell was sometime called “Lee School, just like Snowden School was known by another name.  It is unknown why Hallowell was referred to as the Lee School.  When the City of Alexandria took over the Black Girls School, the School was named Hallowell after a white educator in Alexandria.

Alexandria Black Girls School
1893 Hallowell School Teacher Census

Every school year, the State of Virginia required all counties to provide a school census of their teachers.  The 1893 School year for the City of Alexandria School listed the following teachers for Hallowell School:

 Mrs. Louisa R. Cabainss – 1906 K Street, N.W., Washington, DC

Mrs. Rosetta L. Holland – 315 South Royal Street, Alexandria, VA

Miss Margaret E. Darnell – 117 South West Street, Alexandria, VA

Miss Bessie K. Spriggs – 602 South Washington Street, Alexandria, VA

Miss Sarah J. Derrick – 610 Gibbon Street, Alexandria, VA

Miss Sarah A. Gray – Pleasant View, Alexandria County

Mrs. Harriet E. Thornton, Substitute – 323 North Patrick Street, Alexandria, VA

Miss Maggie A. White – 1016 Queen Street, Alexandria, VA

Snowden School – 1893 Teachers’ Census

Snowden Public Black School for Boys

Shortly after the civil war in 1867, the Freedmen Bureau commissioned George L. Seaton to build two schools for the African Americans in the City of Alexandria.  George, a highly respected African American carpenter built the Snowden School for boys located at Pitt Street between Gibbon and Franklin Streets.  The school was a two-story built frame building with six classrooms.

The first principal of Snowden School was William F. Powell and his assistant teachers were Miss Sarah A. Gray and Miss Carrie Claggett.  Snowden School had a Black Board of Trustees that continued to monitor the Black Education in the City of Alexandria.

Prior to the Snowden School becoming the Black Boys Public School in Alexandria, it was known as the, “Seaton School.”  Once the City of Alexandria took over the School building, the School was named Snowden, after a white educator in Alexandria, but many people referred to the Schoolhouse as the “Seaton Building.”

Alexandria Black Boys School
1893 Snowden School Teachers' Census

Every school year, the State of Virginia required all counties to provide a school census of their teachers.  The 1893 School year for the City of Alexandria School listed the following teachers for Snowden School:

Mr. John F. Parker – 810 North Columbus Street, Alexandria, VA

Mr. William H. Madella – 217 South Alfred Street, Alexandria, VA

Mr. Patrick H. Lumpkin – 810 Queen Street, Alexandria, VA

Mr. Norman B. Pinn – 816 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA

Mr. Richard A. Diggs – 325 South Alfred Street, Alexandria, VA

Mr. Ros(z)ier D. Lyles – 405 North Alfred Street, Alexandria, VA

Mr. Robert B. Thompson, Substitute – 500 block of North Columbus Street

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